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Stakeholder approaches
Experience in protected areas demonstrates that they are most likely to succeed when key stakeholders are involved in creation, design, and management.
Yet the relationship between people and protected areas is one of the most challenging in conservation, with conflicts often created by failing to address people’s needs. Such actions, quite apart from their social and humanitarian impacts, achieve little for conservation. Loss of traditional rights can reduce peoples’ interest in long-term land stewardship  of resources and even increase the rate of damage to the protected area.

Conversely, people can play a key positive role.  Many “natural” areas have been managed to some extent for hundreds or thousands of years and biodiversity may rely on traditional management. Local communities can maintain protected area values, if they agree with them, in situations where park managers have neither the time nor resources to ensure protection.

The Programme of Work stresses that planning should be participatory, involving a wide range of the right stakeholders. Many tools exist to help the process of engaging with stakeholders.
Available Resources For: Stakeholder approaches
1. Guidelines - Protected area governance guidelinessummarydownload
2. Participatory tools - Ecotourism developmentsummarydownload
3. Participatory tools - FAO toolssummarydownload
4. Participatory tools - Good governance guidelinessummarydownload
5. Participatory tools - Multiple stakeholder politics - CIFORsummarydownload
6. Participatory tools - Negotiation approachessummarydownload
7. Participatory tools - overviewsummarydownload
8. Participatory tools - Participatory conservationsummarydownload
9. Participatory tools - Participatory planning for marine areassummarydownload
10. Participatory tools - Ramsar guidelines on indigenous peoples in wetlandssummarydownload
11. Participatory tools - Resources from the World Banksummarydownload
12. Participatory tools - Scenario building from CIFORsummarydownload
13. Participatory tools - Scenarios for adaptive mgt - CIFORsummarydownload
14. Participatory tools - Sharing Powersummaryvisit web site
15. Participatory tools - Stakeholder collaboration from WWFsummarydownload
16. Participatory tools - stakeholder power analysissummarydownload
17. Participatory tools - Tools for Development from DFIDsummarydownload
18. Participatory tools - Who Counts Mostsummarydownload